martes, abril 25, 2006

NOVELA HISTÓRICA, HISTORIA, FOLLETÍN, COSTUMBRISMO

El devenir actual se puede entender como la lucha en el tiempo, lo que otros llaman Historia, de dos fuerzas centrípetas, y centrífugas, la una en relación a la otra, y viceversa. Por un lado la tendencia dominante, que llamamos autoritarismo. Por el otro el lado opuesto libertario: la antiautoritaria. En la modernidad ese acontecer se gesta en el siglo XIX. En ese siglo ambas fuerzas, más o manos organizadas, tratan de manifestarse, imponerse, ordenar el mundo caduco y estamental, ordenar la vida con los principios de libertad, igualdad y fraternidad, heredados del XVIII. Sabido es que la tendencia autoritaria prevalece sobre la libertaria. Sea por el miedo a la libertad del que habló Fromm, sea porque el hombre es un ser poderosamente atraído por la servidumbre voluntaria y la esclavitud. Nunca dejó de ser la fuerza libertaria pauta de control de lo autoritario.
De ahí no debe sorprender a nadie que en sociedades como la alemana o la italiana la eclosión real del autoritarismo se manifestase con el nacionalsocialismo y el fascismo (mezcla los dos de Historia, Ciencia y costumbrismo romántico del XIX), donde la tendencia o el polo autoritario domina totalmente al polo libertario. Casi simultáneo es el acontecer de la llamada revolución soviética, donde se impone e imperó el ramalazo autoritario, aunque se llamara éste de socialista soviético. Todas estas tendencias se incuban en el capitalismo, sea éste de Estado o de Mercado libre o autoritario, y democracia burguesa y toda esa cantinela manida y sabida falsa. En definitiva de una concepción autoritaria de la sociedad, basada en los valores impuestos tradicionales, como familia, propiedad, Estado, Mercado, burocracia, policía, competitividad, triunfo personal, etc. Valores de índole puramente autoritaria, barnizados, para humanizarlos, con un leve toque libertario de proclamación de derechos individuales que son simple papel mojado cuando haga falta, y siempre que la autoridad así lo considere.
Pero esos valores autoritarios logran su imposición, captación, uso y justificación en dos grandes muletas, surgidas, asimismo, en el siglo XIX, dos elementos de superestructura (que diría el marxista): La Historia y la Ciencia. Pese a lo que dijo el señor Carlos Marx: dejemos de interpretar la Historia y pasemos a transformarla. No digo que antes del siglo XIX no existieran actividades que ambas disciplinas acaparan; pero no existían como corpus de dominio y autoridad. Lo que digo es que en la modernidad, y sobre todo en la actualidad, justifican el polo autoritario del poder político, surgido, como ellas, de las efervescencias ilustradas y románticas del XIX. Obvio es que la Historia así, concebida como ciencia, es base de todo nacionalismo que se precie, en la que se fundan fronteras, y ese ominoso y largo etc. Como asimismo la Ciencia es la que determina quien es el apto o no para el servicio militar, por ejemplo, o quien está loco, para apartarlo de los intereses autoritario (recuérdese a Lombroso y sus manías de que el criminal nacía ya como tal).
La Ciencia concebida como disciplina ancilar del poder autoritario hoy es motivo de debate. Y menciono, a vuelapluma asuntos como la clonación, los transgénicos, la poderosa y autoritaria industria farmomédica que defiende intereses más que estar al beneficio de los seres humanos, o el uso de recursos mediáticos para control social, embrutecimiento y alienación de masas y manipulación política.
No es casual que, en esta tesitura de guante blanco, ya que va enmascarada de todo el mito democrático, el autoritarismo, en los últimos treinta años, reforzado por las teorías contraterroristas, para atajar las amenazas de ese autoritarismo de la bomba surgido en su seno, que lo que llaman Historia haya sido del interés masivo de adoctrinamiento. También en tanto si las mentes y cuerpos se ocupan del pasado, olvidan en presente y se domina el futuro. Pero, sobre todo, es en los niveles de ideologización de la cultura de masas alienadas y consumistas, donde la Historia se manifiesta en plenitud, encontrando el campo abonado por los usos políticos autoritarios, que la avalan y justifican. Así el inusitado interés por revistas de divulgación histórica, canales televisivos de asunto histórico, ese perfecto casamiento de dos subgéneros literarios decimonónicos, cuales son la estructura cebollera del folletín, con los dimes y diretes, con sus tensiones sobre el futuro y el qué pasará, y la Historia, como fundamento de un realismo trasnochado, luego de genios como Proust, James Joyce, Faulkner, Borges... Volvemos a vérnosla, con la novela histórica, con la estupidez elevada el cubo que se las vio nuestro Miguel de Cervantes con las históricas y verídicas historias de las novelas de caballerías. Con lo que el intento y la ironía del Quijote resultó en vano.
Folletín e Historia y tenemos novela histórica. Adobado, sabiamente, por otro lugar común del fecundo, en engendros, siglo XIX: el costumbrismo cañí, tan dado a los revivales, los recuerdos intrahistóricos y las fotos añejas. Tan de moda en estos días retros... Con un afán vanamente conservador, en formol, de otros tiempos pasados fueron mejor porque por lo menos éramos más jóvenes. Realmente en sus formas y estilos, la novela histórica que hoy se estila apuntala un sistema conservador de valores, fuertemente autoritarios.
Es esperanzador que el polo opuesto a esos valores autoritarios, los valores libertarios, se manifiesten en obras creativas mayores, de amplio aliento y creación. Sobre todo la poesía, cierto teatro, alguna novela sin adjetivos, el relato y el cuento, por lo general no picado del sida histórico. Pero son, y serán, esos géneros mayores, de una amplia minoría libre, que soporta la terrible alienación del resto. Que ese es el dilema y el problema de la postmodernidad, y/o viceversa, la postmodernidad del problema y/o dilema. Vale.

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